1. The report is due on Friday / this coming Friday. 这个报告这周五要交。 Note: If you're talking about the end of the current week on Monday, Tuesday, or Wednesday, "on Friday" is OK. But, if you're referring to Friday on a Saturday or Sunday, "this coming Friday" is clearer than "next Friday".
2. We have a research paper due every other week. 我们每两周就要交篇论文。 Note: We also have "every other day" (每隔一天). I have to see my dentist every three days. (我每隔三天就要去看一次牙医。) However, "every single day" means every day. "Single" simply strengthen the repetitive sense. Mom, why should I have to brush my teeth every single day? (妈妈，为什么我每天都得刷牙啊？)
3. We are out of time. 我们时间不够了。 Note: You're sweating on the final test, and suddenly the teacher announces, "We're running out of time. Be sure to sign your tests." (时间快到了，请确定考卷填好了姓名) So, you try to write down as many words as possible in the final minutes until he announces, "Time's up".
4. How much longer do you need to get all this stuff done? 你还要多久才能把事情做完？ Note: "How much longer" puts emphasis on the length of the time (sometimes with an air of annoyance or impatience), while "How long" is a neutral expression simply asking for the numerical figure.
5. Don't put things off until the last minute next time.下次不要再临阵磨枪了。 Note: You can also put something off until the "last second", depending on how disorganized you are. For those who do, there's another expression: "I'm cramming for the test." (我正在临时抱佛脚，准备考试。)